Interpreting Cohen's d Effect Size

An Interactive Visualization

Created by Kristoffer Magnusson


The Cohen’s d effect size is immensely popular in psychology. However, its interpretation is not straightforward and researchers often use general guidelines, such as small (0.2), medium (0.5) and large (0.8) when interpreting an effect. Moreover, in many cases it is questionable whether the standardized mean difference is more interpretable than the unstandardized mean difference.

In order to aid the interpretation of Cohen’s d, this visualization offers these different representations of Cohen’s d: visual overlap, Cohen’s U3, the probability of superiority, percentage of overlap, and the number needed to treat. It also lets you change the standard deviation and displays the unstandardized difference.

Cohen's d

Loading visualization

Cohen's U3

% Overlap

Probability of Superiority

Number Needed to Treat

A Common Language Explanation

With a Cohen's d of 0.80, 78.8% of the "treatment" group will be above the mean of the "control" group (Cohen's U3), 68.9% of the two groups will overlap, and there is a 71.4% chance that a person picked at random from the "treatment" group will have a higher score than a person picked at random from the "control" group (probability of superiority). Moreover, in order to have one more favorable outcome in the "treatment" group compared to the "control" group, we need to treat 3.5 people on average. This means that if there are 100 people in each group, and we assume that 20 people have favorable outcomes in the "control" group, then 20 + 28.3 people in the "treatment" group will have favorable outcomes.1

1The values are averages, and it is assumed that 20 (CER) of the "control" group have "favorable outcomes," i.e., their outcomes are below some cut-off. Change this by pressing the settings symbol to the right of the slider. Go to the formula section for more information.

Written by Kristoffer Magnusson, a researcher in clinical psychology. You should follow him on Twitter and come hang out on the open science discord Git Gud Science.


Change Cohen’s d

Use the slider to change Cohen’s d, or open the settings drawer and change the parameters. The inputs can also be controlled using the keyboard arrows.


You can change the following settings by clicking on the settings icon to the right of the slider.

  • Parameters
    • Mean 1
    • Mean 2
    • SD
    • Control group event rate (CER)
  • Labels
    • X axis
    • Distribution 1
    • Distribution 2
  • Slider settings
    • Slider Max
    • Slider Step: Controls the step size of the slider

Save settings

The settings can be saved in your browser’s localStorage and will thus persist across visits.

Pan and rescale

You can pan the x axis by clicking and dragging the visualization. Double-click the visualization to center and rescale it.

Offline use

This site is cached using a service worker and will work even when you are offline.

Cohen’s d

Cohen’s d is simply the standardized mean difference,


where is the population parameter of Cohen’s d. Where it is assumed that , i.e., homogeneous population variances. And is the mean of the respective population.

Cohen’s U3

Cohen (1977) defined U3 as a measure of non-overlap, where “we take the percentage of the A population which the upper half of the cases of the Β population exceeds”. Cohen’s d can be converted to Cohen’s U3 using the following formula

where is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution, and the population Cohen’s d.


Generally called the overlapping coefficient (OVL). Cohen’s d can be converted to OVL using the following formula (Reiser and Faraggi, 1999)

where is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution, and the population Cohen’s d.

Probability of superiority

This is effect size with many names: common language effect size (CL), Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC) or just A for its non-parametric version (Ruscio & Mullen, 2012). It is meant to be more intuitive for persons without any training in statistics. The effect size gives the probability that a person picked at random from the treatment group will have a higher score than a person picked at random from the control group. Cohen’s d can be converted CL using the following formula (Ruscio, 2008)

where is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution, and the population Cohen’s d.

Number Needed to Treat

NNT is the number of patients we would need to treat with the intervention to achieve one more favorable outcome compared to the control group. Furukawa and Leucht (2011) gives the following formula for converting Cohen’s d into NNT

where is the cumulative distribution function of the standard normal distribution and its inverse, CER is the control group’s event rate and the population Cohen’s d. N.B. CER is set to 20 % in the visualization above. You can change this be pressing the settings symbol to the right of the slider. The definition of an “event” or a “response” is arbitrary and could be defined as the proportion of patients who are in remission, e.g. bellow some cut-off on a standardized questionnaire. It is possible to convert Cohen’s d into a version of NNT that is invariant to the event rate of the control group. The interested reader should look at Furukawa and Leucht (2011) where a convincing argument is given to why this complicates the interpretation of NNT.

R code to calculate NNT from Cohen’s d

Since many have asked about R code for the formula above, here it is


  • Baguley, T. (2009). Standardized or simple effect size: what should be reported? British journal of psychology, 100(Pt 3), 603–17.
  • Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciencies. Routledge.
  • Furukawa, T. A., & Leucht, S. (2011). How to obtain NNT from Cohen’s d: comparison of two methods. PloS one, 6(4).
  • Reiser, B., & Faraggi, D. (1999). Confidence intervals for the overlapping coefficient: the normal equal variance case. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 48(3), 413-418.
  • Ruscio, J. (2008). A probability-based measure of effect size: robustness to base rates and other factors. Psychological methods, 13(1), 19–30.
  • Ruscio, J., & Mullen, T. (2012). Confidence Intervals for the Probability of Superiority Effect Size Measure and the Area Under a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47(2), 201–223.

Cite this page according to your favorite style guide. The references below are automatically generated and contain the correct information.


Magnusson, K. (2023). A Causal Inference Perspective on Therapist Effects. PsyArXiv. https://DOI


Please report errors or suggestions by opening an issue on GitHub, if you want to ask a question use GitHub discussions

No, it will be fine. The app runs in your browser so the server only needs to serve the files.

This is intentional, you can read more about my reasons in this blog post: Where Cohen went wrong – the proportion of overlap between two normal distributions

Yes, go ahead! I did not invent plotting two overlapping Gaussian distributions. This visualization is dedicated to the public domain, which means “you can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission” (see Creative common’s CC0-license). Although, attribution is not required it is always appreciated!

The source code for this page is licensed using MIT, and the text on the page is CC-BY 4.0.


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Daniel Sanabria
Daniel Sanabria 2023-03-30
Bueno, supongo que se basa en el tamaño del efecto, verdad? aquí se puede jugar con tamaños del efecto y su interpretación. Lo de la carga cognitiva, puede ser, queda en el terreno de la hipótesis. Yo también creo que puede ser relevante. Veremos 😉
Whatever 2023-02-16
8% with a 2 SD gap:
Akira Sugiura
Akira Sugiura 2023-01-29
まあそんな私が思いつくことなんて既に考えられとるよね・・。なるほど重なり具合とな Interpreting Cohen's d | R Psychologist
Andrew Old
Andrew Old 2023-01-14
This is great for understanding effect sizes.
Dr Jessie Baldwin
Thank you! I think you'd need to convert Cohen's d to Odds Ratio, then convert OR to RR to use in the PAF equation. So it would be possible but involve some approximation. There is also this helpful website for interpreting Cohen's d, which includes NNT
You might find this site helpful for visualizing group differences.
Nïck Brown🌻
Nïck Brown🌻 2022-12-01
For d you can draw the two normal curves and discuss the overlaps, eg with
Jay Patel
Jay Patel 2022-11-07
Responding to the recent newsletter here... I really like the inclusion of effect sizes in the website! Though, for laypeople, consider other options (see:… and I like p(superiority). P.S. Any plans to convey uncertainty?
Miranda M. McIntyre
I always use this for effect size:
Ketone-Kun 2022-10-21
A good article on effect size reporting, saying we should include comparisons to make the effect size meaningful. It's very against 'variance explained' as actively misleading, preferring strait r values I found this software useful…
Alexander 2022-09-24
Good tool for visualizing how much populations can overlap with small effect sizes.
A.N. Atomist
A.N. Atomist 2022-09-20
These apps are pretty nifty. Great from intros for students.
Toni Soto
Toni Soto 2022-09-19
Thank you Kristoffer!
Kristoffer Magnusson
thank you!
Juan Pablo
Juan Pablo 2022-09-19
"Update": Actualizar "Save": Guardar "Save settings": Guardar ajustes "Settings saved": Ajustes guardados "Settings cleared": Ajustes borrados "Something went wrong": Algo salió mal
Kristoffer Magnusson
Thanks! Would it work if I replace "configuraciones" with "ajustes" which is used in the current translation
Alexander Wuttke
Alexander Wuttke 2022-09-19
btw: I love the app and use it rather frequently
Steve Haroz 📊👁️🧠
@lonnibesancon confirm?
Simon Gorin
Simon Gorin 2022-09-19
For French I would translate as follows: Update = Actualiser Save = Enregistrer Save settings = Enregistrer les paramètres Settings saved = Paramètres enregistrés Settings cleared = Paramètres effacés Something went wrong = Quelque chose d'imprévu s'est produit
Juan Pablo
Juan Pablo 2022-09-19
Pic included translated: "Update": Actualizar "Save settings": Guardar configuraciones "Save settings locally in browser": Guardar configuraciones en el navegador de forma local "Save": Guardar "Clear": Borrar
Cucharito López
Cucharito López 2022-09-19
Actualizar Guardar Guardar configuraciones Configuraciones guardadas Configuraciones restablecidas Algo salió mal
Steve Haroz 📊👁️🧠
French: Update -> Mettre à jour Save -> Enregistrer Save settings -> enregistrer les paramètres Settings (have been) saved -> Les paramètres ont été enregistrés Settings (have been) cleared -> Les paramètres ont été effacés Something went wrong -> Quelque chose s'est mal tourné
Juan Pablo
Juan Pablo 2022-09-19
They are synonymous. I'll use "ajustes" if there is already in the current translation instead of "configuraciones".
Juan Pablo
Juan Pablo 2022-09-19
Spanish "Update": Actualizar "Save": Guardar "Save settings": Guardar configuraciones "Settings saved": Configuraciones guardadas "Settings cleared": Configuraciones borradas "Something went wrong": Algo salió mal
Ketone-Kun 2022-09-17
Even the biggest bell curve separation this calculator can draw, would not be big enough for male-female strength differences to justify only conscripting men IMO. And that separation is way bigger than what the science says men and women differ in
Alex Shackman
Alex Shackman 2022-09-03
Super fun, easy, and useful tool for developing better intuition about effect sizes, overlap, and practical utility. @gloria_hc_kim Interpreting Cohen's d - an interactive visualization by @krstoffr
Alexander 2022-09-01
This is a pretty cool website for visualizing what effect sizes look like as distributions. These are small effect sizes (.2) and large effect sizes (.8). See how much even distributions with large effect sizes may overlap:
Tailcalled 2022-08-26
This simulation might be helpful. You can imagine that the x-axis represents overall feelings about body image, and then the most extreme end corresponds to severe body image problems:
Jay Patel
Jay Patel 2022-08-12
Not height, but I like this one:
Mocmi-Mocyu 2022-07-20
Ulrich found association d=.20. That means only 8% fall outside normal statistical distribution. Not a strong case. What’s more, after controlling for poor family background much of this poorer functioning is due to that factor.
Vasco Brazão 🏳️‍🌈
Had you seen this? Could be useful!
Paul Kedrosky
Paul Kedrosky 2022-07-06
I have a broader theory that I'll one day share about effect sizes¹ in research, and the decline effect in general, but for now here is a terrific, interactive visualization of Cohen's d, a measure of experimental effect size.
Dan Goldstein
Dan Goldstein 2022-06-10
Kristoffer Magnusson's visual calculator shows how Cohen's d relates to percent overlap, probability of superiority, and number needed to treat, under assumptions. Others could be added as people have invented stats for distributional overlap for ages.
Dr Nazam Hussain
Dr Nazam Hussain 2022-04-14
I use this interactive visual to help school staff (and me to be fair) understand effect sizes. Really useful.
CELL 2022-03-31
Nice tip by @PaulRiesthuis : Visit the website by Kristoffer Magnusson (@krstoffr ) to help with the interpretation of a Cohen's d effect size. The website provides a neat visualization of the ES as well as a common language explanation. #ZPLS
Alexandra Badea
Alexandra Badea 2022-03-15
Norman Mendoza
Norman Mendoza 2022-03-01
🤯This is ridiculously the best and most engaging explanation interpreting Cohen's d - an interactive visualization. You're a bad man @krstoffr
Tobias Dienlin
Tobias Dienlin 2021-12-10
TIL ...
James Bartlett
James Bartlett 2021-12-10
Ryan Enos
Ryan Enos 2021-10-27
This is a really nice interactive tool for understanding Cohen's D by @krstoffr
Fred Oswald
Fred Oswald 2021-10-21
Cohen's d=.80 is considered (rule-of-thumb) a large standardized mean difference between 2 groups. How much is the overlap between groups, would you guess (assuming within-group normality)? (...don't cheat but then see
Mark Godwin
Mark Godwin 2021-10-12
Do any #sportscience researchers use the probability of superiority alongside effect sizes? Any links to papers would be appreciated. Interpreting Cohen's d - an interactive visualization by @krstoffr
João Peça
João Peça 2021-08-27
What a wonderful way of visualizing Cohen's d! Also, check out the other amazing tools for power analysis. Great work by @krstoffr! #statistics #neuroscience #greatfortheclassroom
Sarah Morris
Sarah Morris 2021-07-18
Just saw a link to this from another thread. What a great way to build intuition around effect sizes
Prof Courtenay Norbury
here is what d=.26 looks like - improvement, but not ameliorated (from excellent website:
Brian Pulling
Brian Pulling 2021-04-12
awesome visualisation for interpreting cohen's d (also demonstrates why it can be so hard to interpret effect sizes!) #rstats
MRCPsych Twit Revision
Again, fantastic resource to help visualise Cohen’s d further. Interpreting Cohen's d - an interactive visualization: #MRCPsychTR #MRCPsychTRPaperB #MCRPsychPaperB
R posts you might have missed!
✍️ Interpreting Cohen's d | R Psychologist 👤 Kristoffer Magnusson @krstoffr 🔗 #rstats #datascience
Mara Averick
Mara Averick 2021-02-17
Wooot!! I've loved this for so long…
günlük 2021-02-17
Kristoffer Magnusson
Absolutely! The translation process is documented here, DM me if you need any help!…
Kristoffer Magnusson
Great! You can find instructions here, DM me if you need any help!…
Daniel Alcalá López
Count me in for a Spanish translation!
Arthur Sá Ferreira 😷
If you want Portuguese-Brazil translation I am interest 🇧🇷

(Webmentions sent before 2021 will unfortunately not show up here.)

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